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What Is Pgd ?

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

What is PGD?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a method that allows people with a specific inherited condition in their family to prevent passing it on to their children. This involves identifying the genes of embryos that are created through IVF for any genetic condition.

Is PGD for me?

PGD will be used to test for about 100 or more genetic conditions. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis will be recommended if you have had a number of abortions because of the genetic condition of your fetus or you already have a child with a severe genetic abnormality or you have a family history of severe genetic abnormality.

What are the risks of PGD?

The risks involved in PGD are mostly similar to those of IVF. The possible risks involved with Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis may include; testing may not be 100 percent  conclusive due to the reliable factor of 100 percent  and some embryos may get damaged during the process of cell removal.

How does PGD work?

The procedure for PGD follows below:

Woman will undergo a normal in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment to fertilize her eggs.

The embryo will be grown in the laboratory for 2 to 3 days until the cells are divided and the embryo consists of around 8 cells.

Then a trained embryologist will remove 1 or 2 of the cells (blastomeres) from the embryo.

The cells are then tested to see if the embryo contains any gene that causes the genetic abnormality in the family.

The embryos that are unaffected by the condition are then transferred to the womb to allow them to develop.

Any remaining unaffected embryos that are suitable can then be frozen for later use. Those embryos that are affected by the condition are allowed to die.

After 2 weeks after the embryo transfer, a woman is given a pregnancy test.

What is the chance of having a baby with PGD?

It is rather difficult to evaluate success rates for PGD because there is no big data available currently. Most women use this treatment to avoid having a baby with genetic disorders. As with most of the fertility treatments, success here also depends on various factors including the woman’s age and causes of infertility.

Sometimes, there find no embryos that are suitable for transfer into the womb for reasons below:

  • Enough eggs are not produced or fertilized in the first place 
  • Removing the cells to analyze may damages the embryos 
  • May be all the embryos are affected by the genetic condition.

PGD for gender selection

Some genetic diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy are sex-linked disorders that affect only boys and not girls (girls may carry the gene for the disease but they are not suffered from it). In this condition, the cells are examined thoroughly to find out the embryo’s sex and only the female embryos are then transferred to the womb. This sex selection procedure is allowed only to avoid having a baby with a serious medical condition and not to have a baby girl or baby boy to balance your family.

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